So I accidentally deleted the first copy of this so I’m having to write it out again. This has been an absolute mission, I hope you appreciate it.
The 2nd chromosome is a prime example of how humans have evolved from apes (not to be confused with any specific modern day examples). Human beings have a set of 23 chromosomes while all other members of hominidae have 24. This is because the second chromosome in humans is the product of fusion between two ape chromosomes. We can tell this because the order of genes on chromosome 2 correlates almost perfectly to that between two chimp chromosomes end on end. We can also observe that the 2nd chromosome has two vestigial centromeres and 2 vestigial sets of telomeres (center and end respectively).
Aside from pointing out our obvious kinship to other apes, it’s essentially another example of unintelligent design. Why would God do this? What reason does it have? Perhaps you would argue that it’s there to test your faith, but I really think that this is less testing your faith and more God trying to get away from you guys and hiding this tracks.
Also known as junk DNA, the presence of pseudogenes has to be the greatest example of unintelligent design and a way to date organisms internally and not by using external cues. I mentioned in an earlier post that humans had around 3 billion bp, the number of genes is considerably lower, estimates have put it probably most accurately at around 30,000 (Only 1/3 more than a round worm for those who hold humans in such high esteem) although the number is vastly inaccurate. The fact is, about 1% of base pairs actually code for a protein. The remaining 99% is quite honestly, junk. So why would a God install all this useless information? A human being could function without it or in fact any organism could and a lot more efficiently too (note the only way for natural selection to get rid of genes is through deletion via mutation, it’s not as easy as organisms who have less pseudogenes are more likely to procreate). The thing is, pseudogenes are the result of a colossal amount of mutation to genes that code for proteins that we no longer need, thus they become completely useless. They also serve the purpose of a clock as I mentioned before, by observing the amount of mutations that have occurred at a specific spot on two organisms and factoring in the rate of mutation we can tell how long since they split from their common ancestor.
The most obvious example of genes support evolution is the fact that every living thing is made up of DNA (Viruses do not count as living) and that this DNA is all remarkably similar. Organisms that look similar tend to have similar DNA (not including the notable example of hyraxes). Also certain proteins are present in organisms that need it and not in organisms that don’t. The amount of climate change and geological change that causes speciation is so great that God would have to be spending just about 24/7 correcting Organisms and refining them to suit the new environments that nature throws at them. But you know what suits that model a lot better without having to invoke something there is no scientific evidence for? Natural selection. And sometimes proteins vary, as would be expected considering natural selection’s mechanism of random mutations (Natural selection itself is not random at all, but the mutations are). A notable example of this is cytochrome C. Cytochrome C is found in most, if not ALL, living things and preforms basic tasks required for life.
Cytochrome C averages around 100 amino acids, however some organisms have up to 104. Chickens and turkeys have identical structures, as do humans and chimps, however between these two sets the structure is different. So why would God make so many different types of Cytochrome C if it’s all going to do the exact same thing? It’s just stupid. It would be like me being an artist and painting pictures, but every so often I’d swap one colour for another, say dark green for bright pink. It would still be a painting, but it wouldn’t make sense. It’d be like abstract art or something.